The principal formal requirements for the PhD in history are as follows:
- Completion of 18 courses during the first two years of study, including two quarters of work each year in an intensive research seminar
- Passing of examinations in three areas (a general field, a specialization within that field, and a minor field) during the second and third year of study
- Demonstration of pertinent language skills
- Submission of a dissertation prospectus or proposal by the beginning of the third year of study
- Presentation of an approved dissertation.
Satisfying the first four requirements leads to admission to candidacy for the PhD; approval of the dissertation by the responsible faculty committee results in the award of the degree.
Within the framework of these general requirements, students develop individual programs of study and research with designated advisors and advisory committees, subject to the approval of the department's graduate program committee. These faculty advisors help students define fields, select an appropriate combination of specific courses, design and schedule suitable language study and examinations, and develop dissertation projects.
Fields, Courses, and Examinations
The general field is, in most cases, one of the six areas of research training in the Department of History: African history, American history, medieval and early modern European history, modern European history, East Asian history and Latin American history. However, in keeping with the department's tradition of promoting comparative work, individually designed programs are arranged with appropriate faculty advisory committees when a student's anticipated doctoral research requires focused study in more than one general field.
Students take four to six courses in their general field, including at least two appropriate general field seminars that must be taken for a grade, not P/N. The written examination that follows is evaluated by at least three members of the faculty. During the weeks preceding this exam, students have an opportunity to consult with their advisory committee concerning the format and the questions it will contain.
The specialization is the specific area of study within the general field in which the student expects to write a dissertation. The specialization is defined by agreement between the student and the appropriate advisory committee led by a major advisor. Examples of specializations include colonial North America, preindustrial southern Africa, medieval religious and intellectual history, the Old Regime and the French Revolution, the Reformation, the Renaissance, modern Germany, the history of the American South, American cultural history, and the history of science.
Students take four to six graded courses in their specialization field, as set forth in their contract, followed by an oral examination evaluated by their advisory committee. The course work includes at least two quarters of research as well as such work in other departments and programs as is deemed appropriate.
The total number of courses taken in the general field and the specialization must add up to 10.
The minor field is an area of study in which the student wishes to acquire teaching competence or which he or she selects out of methodological or topical interest. The definition and courses of study in the field are established by a written contract, drawn up by the end of the winter quarter of the first year, between the student and a member of the department who acts as supervisor. The field must be concerned with a geographical area completely different from the student's general field, unless it is a comparative field. Examples of second fields include colonial Africa, imperialism, modern China, premodern and modern Japan, the Jews in Europe, comparative industrialization, comparative slavery, social and economic development in Latin America, the history of science and technology, gender history, international relations in the 20th century, and 20th-century America.
Students take three courses in the minor field. At least two of the minor field courses are graded. The minor field sequence is followed by an oral examination. Ideally, the courses entail working with more than one faculty member; minor field exams are always administered and evaluated by two or more professors.
In addition to the 13 to 14 courses that relate to the three field examinations, all graduate students take two courses in methodology and theory. Most students satisfy two of the remaining units of required course credit through teaching assistantships during two quarters of the second year; students not scheduled to teach take more free electives.
All graduate students are expected to demonstrate proficiency on a departmental examination in the foreign languages necessary to their research. For specialists in American history, this may mean none. For those concentrating on African history, it generally means at least one indigenous and one European tongue (including English, in the case of non-native speakers). For students of continental European history, it means at least two languages, but for students of British history, normally only one.
Grading and Year-End Review
Students take most of their graduate courses (generally one half to two thirds of the 18 required) on a graded basis. All courses taken in the first year must be graded. Other courses may be taken as 490 tutorials on a Pass/No Credit basis.
At the end of each academic year, the faculty meets to review the performance of those first-year students whose work has not reached the standards expected of graduate study. The determination of whether to review will be based on course grades (including the 570 paper) and the ability to complete work in a timely manner. Although the review can result in a recommendation to discontinue, in most cases the faculty will address ways to help students improve their graduate work.
All students are reviewed by the faculty at the end of their second year, in order to assess whether they should continue in the program and to share information useful to faculty's further guidance of students. A faculty committee will conduct an initial review of students and prepare a report for the full faculty's consideration. The students' full two years of work will be considered. Decisions will be based on the totality and trajectory of a student's record. Continuation is not guaranteed, but review begins with the assumption that students warrant continuation unless a case to the contrary has emerged. Of paramount concern is whether the student is likely to become a good research scholar and to proceed successfully to and through the dissertation phase of the PhD. Specific criteria for review are:
- Acceptable progress through the end of the second year in meeting requirements of the student's field, as measured in part by acceptable grades in course work (graded and otherwise) and successful completion of relevant exams. Students with a record of chronic and belatedly fulfilled incomplete grades will elicit special concern.
- Demonstrated research and writing abilities as seen in the 570, 580, and other written work. All students, but especially those who struggled in their 570 work, will be expected to complete the 580 in a timely and successful manner.
- Evidence of developing teaching competence (or for the occasional student not funded through teaching in the second year, the promise of such competence).
Timetable for Admission to Candidacy
Students may take the three required substantive examinations in any order (the usual pattern is minor field, general field, and specialization), but should adhere to the following schedule for meeting the requirements for admission to candidacy:
- First foreign language examination (if necessary) taken by the end of fall quarter of the first year of study (1F);
- Submission of approved minor contract by end of winter quarter of first year (1W);
- One field examination passed by the end of winter quarter of the second year (2W);
- Second foreign language examination (if necessary) passed by the end of spring quarter of the second year (2S);
- Proposed dissertation prospectus submitted to adviser by the first day of classes of the fall quarter of the third year (3F);
- Another field examination passed by the end of winter quarter of the third year (3W);
- Third field examination (and third foreign language, if necessary) passed by the end of the first week of classes of the spring quarter of the third year (3S);
- In addition to all of the above, the successful defense of a dissertation prospectus by the end of spring quarter of the third year (3S) is required for advancement to Ph.D. candidacy. A minimum of three individuals must serve on the dissertation committee. At least two members of the committee, including the chair, must be members of the Northwestern University Graduate Faculty. At least one member of the committee must have a primary appointment in the History Department.
There is one exception to the above timetable. Students who need to master Arabic or an East Asian language may take it as one of the three courses required per quarter during their graduate training. Because such students must still take the required 18 courses as outlined above, the length of time in course work and the schedule for their exams are extended.